J. Sicheri \ Oceans First, Issue 2, 2015, pgs. 42-49.
Ocean acidification and rising ocean temperatures both pose threats to many marine organisms’ physiology and habitats. This paper will establish whether or not these factors have a negative impact on populations of foraminifera, an important type of zooplankton, and if so, to what severity? In addition, this paper promotes the need for more research into the effects of acidification and warming on marine life. While the predicted impacts in reviewed studies varied in severity, they all agreed that ocean acidification, and to a lesser extent ocean temperature rise, will negatively impact foraminifera. Most researchers also agreed that more research must be done to understand the full extent of the impacts of ocean acidification and ocean temperature rise on foraminifera. This paper concludes that the cumulative effect of climate change as a whole be more harmful to foraminifera than any individual factor. Research examining the combined impact of climate change factors such as ocean temperature rise and ocean acidification should be undertaken.
I. Hurley \ Oceans First, Issue 2, 2015, pgs. 17-22.
Abstract: Over this century ocean dead zones are expected to dramatically increase in number. This paper reviews articles describing how climate change will impact ocean dead zones. These studies show that there are many aspects of climate change that affect dead zones. Primarily, an increase in temperature on dead zones, examined in depth in this review, will to lead to the expansion of dead zones through mechanisms such as stratification. Other aspects of climate change, such as changes in patterns of precipitation and changes in ocean circulation, will also affect ocean dead zones, though currently not enough research exists to say definitively how. Overall, the studies reviewed suggest that climate change will cause dead zones to spread globally.
L. Henderson \ Oceans First, Issue 2, 2015, pgs. 1-9.
Climate change associated with increasing ocean temperatures is impacting the narwhal population of the Arctic Ocean, an area highly susceptible to rising temperatures. Among other things, these unique cetaceans are being affected by ice-entrapments and top-down controls from killer whale predation. Examining these factors can help predict the dangers to narwhal populations for future conservation efforts. Increasingly delayed ice formation due to global warming is causing high mortality of narwhals as they become entrapped in the rapidly freezing ice of the harsh winter. Warming ocean temperatures are opening up Arctic waters for killer whales to hunt narwhals as well, killing many more than they need for food in the process. The small population of narwhals is especially vulnerable to climate change. The narwhals are an important part of the Arctic food chain, being one of many secondary consumers, and increase its biodiversity with their distinctive protruding tusk, unique to the narwhal only. This review synthesizes the events causing increased mortality rates of narwhals to provide a scope for future conservation efforts.